9 Hawks in Maryland

8 species of true hawks are found in the Old-Line State. Osprey is not a true hawk, but as they are part of the broader Accipiter family, they make 9 Hawks in Maryland.

A hawk is considered a bird of prey. Birds of Prey are a group consisting of hawks, eagles, falcons, owls, condors, and vultures. They are also referred to as Raptors, from the Latin “raptare” – to seize and carry off. All raptors with the exception of owls are diurnal, meaning that they hunt during the day. Owls are primarily nocturnal and hunt mostly at night.

When identifying raptors, keep in mind that females are much larger than males. This can make determining what you’re viewing problematic with some species, like the Coopers and Sharp-shinned. Cooper’s Hawks are larger overall than the Sharp-shinned Hawk, but Cooper’s male can be the same size as a Sharp-shinned female.

For other birdwatching in Maryland see our articles on Backyard Birds in Maryland, Woodpeckers in Maryland, Ducks in Maryland, and Owls in Maryland.

Hawks in Maryland

While there are some species of hawks that live year-round in Maryland, many of the hawks seen are seasonal visitors.

The hawks found in Maryland are broken down into three separate families: Accipiters, Buteos and Pandionidae.

Pandionidae Hawks

Pandionidae has only one member – the fish-eating Osprey. While it’s not considered a true hawk, this raptor’s presence in Maryland puts it on this list.

1. Osprey

  • Scientific Name Pandion haliaetus                       
  • Size 1.5 to 2 feet          
  • Wingspan 5 feet


Osprey are seasonal visitors to Maryland, found all along the Atlantic Coast, the Chesapeake Bay estuary, and the Delmarva Peninsula. Chesapeake Bay supports the largest concentration of breeding Osprey in the United States.

Also known as Fish Hawk, Sea Hawk, and River Hawk, Ospreys migrate up from South America and begin their return trip in Fall. Tagged Osprey has been found as far away as Venezuela, Colombia, and the Amazon River Basin.

A white head with a bold, brown stripe that starts behind the eye, a large brown body, and a dark tail mark this bird. Osprey eats only fish. Excellent anglers, they scan the open waters below and once the food is spotted, hover over the prey, diving feet-first to grab the fish with its sharp talons.

They are not deep divers (about 3 feet or less) but they will take fish that are close to the surface when they find them. And they do hit that water hard, sending big splashes up around them.

Their toes are unique in that they reverse to grip prey with two toes front and back. Barbs on the pads of their feet allow a strong grip on slippery fish. Once caught, Osprey always aligns their prey to be head first before flying away with their dinner (a head-first fish offers less wind resistance).

While a white head often makes people think of a “Bald Eagle”, there are many differences between the two birds. Ospreys are much smaller, they have dark, banded tails (not white), and their flight profile is totally different from our national symbol. Where Eagles fly flat, Osprey’s wings are usually bent when in flight.

Bird Notes

A flying Osprey has long, triangular wings, giving them a silhouette that’s more streamlined than a Buteo hawk. Look for a white underwing, white belly, banded tail, and bold, striped flight feathers. Other good field marks are their brown “wrists” and “fingertips”. The latter are splayed wide apart, showing the individual “fingers”. Their wingbeats are stiff with a rowing motion.

Their nests are built on anything tall: telephone poles, chimneys, specially-built Osprey platforms, or any place they think they can build one. Nests consist of twigs, sticks, grass, rope, and anything else that strikes the bird’s eye. Osprey will often weave colorful items like plastic bags or old clothes into their nests.

While there may seem to be an abundance of Osprey in Maryland during the summer months, back in the 1960s and 1970s the species all but disappeared from the Eastern Seaboard. Pesticides used at the time built up in fresh and salt waters, affecting the Osprey’s food supply.

DDT caused the birds to lay eggs with thin shells, so fewer eggs survived to hatch. Populations crashed. Osprey, Bald Eagles, and Peregrine Falcons were seriously affected.

Banning DDT allowed a natural cleansing cycle to begin. As their food source became pesticide-free, the shells of Osprey and other bird eggs affected became thicker and now there are Osprey everywhere on the East Coast again.

Ospreys return to the same nest year after year, which they constantly adjust by adding to the structure, building them higher and wider. Over time, the nests can become more than 10 feet deep and over 6 feet wide.

Accipiter Hawks

Accipiters are fast-moving birds with short, broad, rounded wings and long tails that make it easy for them to maneuver during flight.

While Falcons are also accipiters, they are not hawks and will be covered in another one of our articles.

2. Sharp-shinned Hawk

  • Scientific Name Accipiter striatus                  
  • Size 11 inches                    
  • Wingspan 23 inches


Male Sharpies are the smallest hawks in the US and Canada.

The fast-moving Sharp-shinned Hawk is a keen hunter, weaving through wooded areas to take Robin-sized or smaller songbirds and small rodents from the forest. Long wings and very long tails, along with short wings, make these raptors highly maneuverable among the trees.

Sharpies are the stealth hunters of the raptor class, using their speed to chase their prey or pouncing from the canopy to grab them from the ground. They are built for zipping around trees and forest shrubs, weaving in and out in hot pursuit.

Their eyes are large while their heads appear small for their size. The tail is squared off and banded.

Immature birds are brown above with brown streaking below. Another field mark for the young Sharp-shinned hawk is a yellow eye.

Their flight profile shows the wings appear pushed forward and their cadence is a flap-flap-glide pattern. Sharp-shinned Hawk light silhouette is more of a capital “T” with the head just peeking out ahead of the wings.

The Sharp-shinned Hawk prefers firs or other conifers for their nest sites.

Bird Notes

Sharpies love to cruise local bird feeders, using them like an avian buffet. If one becomes a constant visitor to your backyard, remove the feeders for about two weeks. The Sharpie will move off to better pickings and you can set up the feeders again.

3. Cooper’s Hawk

  • Scientific Name Accipiter Cooperii                        
  • Size 16.5 inches                      
  • Wingspan 31 inches


The quintessential Accipiter, the Cooper’s Hawk is a medium-sized stealth missile honed in on its songbird prey, weaving and swerving through dense forests propelled on strong rounded wings and very long tails.

Adult Cooper’s Hawks are gray with reddish barring on the chest, long gray tails with black banding, and a white tail edge (terminal band). The face features pale cheeks, a black cap, red eyes, and a strongly hooked bill.

Immature birds are brown upper parts and white underparts that are streaked with brown. Oh, and yellow eyes.

Cooper’s Hawks show a flight profile where the wings appear pushed forward and their cadence is flap-flap-glide. Their light silhouette is more of a lower-case “T” with the head out in front of the wings. The tails of Cooper’s Hawks appear rounded in flight.

Like the Sharp-shinned Hawk, above, Cooper’s Hawks love the avian buffet served at your feeders. Follow the same protocol – remove the feeders for a week or two and the Coop should move along to find a new restaurant.

Bird Notes

How to tell a Cooper’s from a Sharpie? Size may not work here, since there’s a major overlap between the two species, with the female Sharpie being similar in size to the male Cooper’s.

Cooper’s Hawks are more the size of a Crow while Sharp-shinned is more the size of a Blue Jay, but again, you’ll have to use more than that to make the positive ID.

The Coopers will sit more upright on a branch. The tail is rounded, kind of like a sideways “C” for Cooper’s, while the Sharpie’s tail has a flat edge.

Cooper’s hawk heads are blocky and appear large while the head of a Sharp-shinned seems small for its body size. In addition to this, the Cooper looks like it’s wearing a cap while the Sharpie wears a hood.

Last one – the Cooper’s Hawk’s body is thick and somewhat tubular and has a low center of gravity while the Sharpie is broad in the chest and slimmer in the hips, so it has a higher center of gravity.

Still confused? So am I. That’s why there’s a box to check for “Accipiter species” on birding checklists.

4. Northern Goshawk

  • Scientific Name Accipiter gentilis                           
  • Size 21 inches            
  • Wingspan 41 inches


Northern Goshawks are one of the largest hawks seen in Maryland and are found in coniferous and mixed old-growth forests. They are also among the most secretive, choosing to inhabit forests all through their range. They are rare winter visitors to Maryland, but keep an eye out for these elusive raptors.

Red-eyed, large, robust Accipiter with a slaty-gray cap and white eyebrow. Their backs are slate gray while their breast, chest, and underparts are white with fine gray barring. Juvenile birds are brownish with streaked bellies and speckled backs. The crowns of their heads are brown, with that same white eyebrow as the adult birds.

Goshawks present a flight profile very similar to buteos, but their long, thin rounded tails mark them as accipiters. They appear light-colored with dark bands on their outer wings, a white tail edge, and a white underbelly.

These large raptors hunt both the interior and edges of forests, or along the edges of both. They wait perched on branches until a potential meal is spotted, then they dive down with incredible speed to pick off their prey.

Their food sources of choice are rabbits (cottontails in Maryland), snowshoe hares, and tree and ground squirrels and birds. They will also take reptiles and small mammals, with an occasional foray into insects and even carrion dependent on the conditions.

This powerful hawk is aggressive when there are eggs or young in their nests. It will kill other raptors, including owls, and will also attack humans if they get too close.

Bird Notes

Goshawk means “Goose Hawk” in Old English, as birds are the main food source.

These large accipiters have been kept and used in falconry for over least 2,000 years.

Buteo Hawks    

Buteos are large raptors with short, wide tails, broad wings, and heavy, solid bodies.  While Buteos are called “hawks” here in the US and Canada, they are known as “buzzards” throughout the rest of the world.

While most raptors have a specific color to their feathers, Buteo hawks can have variations in that overall plumage. This color difference is called a “morph”. Morphs are typically lighter or darker versions of the normal feather hue.

A dark morph Rough-legged hawk looks just like the field guide bird but is darker overall. Light morphs are paler than “normal” birds. While they will appear in another of our articles, a good example of morphs is the Eastern Screech Owl, for which comes in three morphs – brown, grey, and red.

5. Red-tailed Hawk

Red-tailed Hawking flying
  • Scientific Name Buteo jamaicensis                 
  • Size 18 to 26 inches          
  • Wingspan 3.5 to 4.5 feet


The most common hawk in North America (and Maryland too). Red tails come in 14 subspecies, all with different plumages. You’ll find the eastern version of the Red-tailed Hawk, known as “Red-tailed Hawk” all over Maryland, as most of the subspecies are found west of the Mississippi River.

Seen from below, this is a pale bird with a dark “belly band”, dark fingers (wingtips), and edges of their flight feathers. Adults are brown above, with that distinctive cinnamon-red tail. That red tail is so prominent that even if you’re looking up at the bird, the reddish tail can still be visible in most light.

While their red tails are the best field mark for this bird, the tails of juvenile or immature hawks are brown, making the ID more difficult. That’s where that belly band nails it. No belly band – look at the other Buteos on this list.

Red-tails are often seen circling on the thermals in search of small mammals and snakes, with game birds such as pheasants and quail also included in their diet. Sometimes they will hunt in pairs, coasting in tight circles opposite each other.

Look for Red-tailed nests high up in the trees, where they have a commanding view over their territory. These are tall (up to 6 feet) structures constructed from dry sticks. They are quite robust, which is why Great Horned Owls will often take them over once the Red-tailed chicks have fledged and left.

Red-tailed Hawks are very aggressive when it comes to defending their nests and their territories. And since this species can be found nesting in tall trees or even suburban areas, If you get too close, there’s a good chance that you’ll be dive-bombed. These birds have huge, long talons – so keep your distance, please.

Bird Notes

Watching a movie and an eagle comes screaming from a mountaintop? That’s not an eagle. Hollywood doesn’t think that Bald Eagles sound “eagle-y” enough, so the ordinary Red-tailed Hawk call is the substitute of choice for the more regal eagle a majority of the time.

A Red-tail won’t hit the birds at your feeders, but it may be tempting to take off with your little yappy Yorkie or Chihuahua (they can carry up to about 5 pounds).

6. Red-shouldered Hawk

  • Scientific Name buteo lineatus             
  • Size 15 to 19 inches                
  • Wingspan 37 to 42 inches


Distinctively marked Buteo with a characteristic whistle call found in wetland forests all across the state.

Red-shouldered Hawks show rufous-peach barred underparts, a mottled black-and-white back, and rufous “shoulders”. Both the tail and flight feathers are banded, and the wingtips appear squarish as opposed to the splayed fingers of other Buteos.

Juvenile and immature birds don’t have the reddish coloration of their parents, nor do they have the black-and-white checkerboard back pattern. They may look like juvenile Red-tailed Hawks, but they don’t have the Red-tail’s belly band. They are also smaller.

Regardless of their age, all Red-shouldered Hawks show translucent white crescents on their wingtips when in flight.

From below, the reddish-brown body and “arms” are easy to recognize. Their long tails give them a sleeker flight silhouette than other Buteos. And while they still have the broad-winged look of a Buteo, Red-shouldered Hawks can also appear very Accipiter-like by flapping their wings followed by a glide.

The Red-shouldered Hawk’s diet runs from small mammals to lizards, snakes, and amphibians. On occasion, they will take birds from feeders, but other avians are not a prime food source.

Nests are often close to a water source, usually in the crook of a tree, somewhat closer to the top than the floor. They will reuse the same nest year after year, refurbishing it with twigs, grass, leaves, and conifer sprigs.

Bird Notes

The courtship of Red-shouldered Hawks features the male and female flying together and rolling over on their backs to fly upside down in unison.

7. Broad-winged Hawk

  • Scientific Name Buteo Platypterus                 
  • Size 13  inches                   
  • Wingspan 28 to 39 inches


A sturdy, small crow-sized Buteo with a black-and-white banded short tail found in the interior forests of Maryland. They can be seen mostly during the breeding season (April to August) and at hawk watches during fall migrations.

The characteristic field mark for the Broad-winged Hawk is the white banding on their short tails. In light or dark morph, they will always show those white bands.

Smaller than other Buteos, with tapered wings that come with a sort-of tip, they can turn in tighter circles when soaring on thermals than their larger cousins.

The dark morph Broad-winged Hawk is the rarer of the color variations. These birds are uniformly dark brown, with a white band on their tails. Light morph Broad-winged Hawks have brown heads and chests, barred underparts, and dark tails (with a broad white band on the tail).

Broad-winged Hawks feed mostly on mammals, amphibians, and insects. They hunt their prey from trees, poles, or any place giving them the opportunity to dive down from above.

Their nests are lower in the canopy than other raptors, staying away from the tops of trees. Two feet wide is about the maximum width of the nest, which is constructed from sticks and bark, and lined with feathers, moss, lichens, and pine needles.

Bird Notes

During migration, Broad-winged Hawks travel to Central America and the South American continent in large flocks called kettles. You can see them circling around and flying overhead at a local hawk watch.

8. Rough-legged Hawk

Scientific Name Buteo lagopus                Size 18 to 23 inches              Wingspan 48-56 inches


Large, narrow-winged, long-tailed Buteo that favors open country. A visitor to Maryland and the Northeast in winter months, they can be found perched on trees and posts near open grasslands or hovering above fields searching for prey.

The name “Rough-legged” comes from the covering of feathers on their legs and feet.

In either dark or light morphs, the characteristic field marks of the Rough-legged Hawk are the dark wrists and black belly band, banded tail and flight feathers, and feathered legs and toes. Males tend to have darker heads and sparser belly bands. Female Rough-leg heads are lighter, while their belly bands are broader and darker than the males.

Juveniles have white panels in their primary feathers (close to the wingtips).

Dark morph birds have paler flight feathers, giving them two-toned underwings. Their tails show white bands. Their backs and bellies are mottled and their underparts may vary from brown to dark chocolate brown.

Male light morph birds are more mottled on the back and wings than the females. The female’s belly band is more noticeable.

Hunting grounds of Rough-legged Hawks can be open fields, farmland, grasslands, coastal prairies, or marshes. They can often be seen hovering over open areas in search of small rodents.

Rough-legged Hawks prowl the Arctic tundra in search of voles and lemmings, but when on their southern Winter range, rodents, small mammals, and other birds make up their diet. If winters are harsh, these raptors will eat carrion.

Remember, “south” depends on where you start your journey, and for Arctic-based birds, Maryland is “south”. Whether or not you will see one depends more on conditions in the Arctic.

If their food source is abundant, there is no need to travel farther south than New England. If scarce, you’ll see them along the mid-Atlantic coast.

Bird Notes

Rough-legged Hawks are one of the large hawks normally seen in Maryland.

Rough-legged Hawks apparently can “see” vole urine, which is visible in ultraviolet light, and hunt in areas where the rodent pee is more concentrated and prey is abundant. This is something they have in common with the American Kestrel, a small falcon that also hunts by hovering over open fields scanning for prey.

9. Northern Harrier

  • Scientific Name Circus hudsonius                        
  • Size 18 inches             
  • Wingspan 43 inches


You’re driving along an open field and you spot a low-flying raptor almost eye-level, gliding over the field, its wings held in a V, long-tailed and effortlessly floating, slowly searching and drifting over the barren ground in search of food.

You’ve just encountered a Northern Harrier, one of the beautiful hawks found in Maryland.

If you look closer, you’ll notice the dish-shaped owlish face, wide white rump patch that’s always visible in flight, and a very long tail.

Adult male Harriers have light gray heads, darker gray backs, and white breasts, giving them a ghostly appearance and the moniker “Grey Ghost. Females are dark brown on top with the same light underparts and white rump patches.

Light underparts, black wingtips, and black secondary feathers are other field marks, but it’s that owl face and white rump patch that sets the Harrier apart.

Harriers have a way of moving low over the ground in slow, drifting patterns searching for prey.

Bird Notes

Male Northern Harriers are known as “Grey Ghosts” for their coloration and the spectral way they float over open ground. There is no way to explain the sight of this beautiful raptor gliding over a marsh or field.

Northern Harriers were also called “Marsh Hawks” due to their fondness for hunting over marshes and wetlands.

Short-eared Owls like the same habitats as Northern Harriers, but hunt more at dawn or dusk. So visiting an area known for Northern Harrier activity in the early morning or later in the afternoon may get you a Short-eared Owl or two. 

Other hawks and hawk-like birds that may be found in Maryland

In addition to the hawks, there are Bald Eagles, three falcon species (American Kestrels, Merlin, Peregrine), and both Black and Turkey Vultures being seen in Maryland. If you’re lucky, you may even find Mississippi, Swallow-tailed and White-tailed Kites, and Golden Eagles in the forests during winter.

Where to find Hawks in Maryland

No matter what part of Maryland you’re in, you can find hawks there.

Be observant. I’ve done a lot of double-takes when walking trails, going back a few steps to find a hawk sitting on a branch. I’ve also looked up and seen their silhouette against the open (or urban) sky, or found them sitting on large branches along highways.

The best places to see Osprey in Maryland are anywhere where you find water, be it fresh or salt. Look for their nests on platforms, poles, and anywhere that the Ospreys think is a great place to build a nest. The Chesapeake Bay Delmarva Peninsula, Inner Harbor, and Atlantic Coastline are excellent places for summer viewing.

There are 7 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in Maryland: Blackwater, Chesapeake Marshlands NWR Complex, Chincoteague, Eastern Neck, Glenn Martin, Patuxent Research Refuge, and Susquehanna River.

Hawk Watches are great places to find migrating raptors of various species, especially Broad-winged Hawks.  Maryland has about a dozen hawk watch sites such as Cumberland Gap, Washington Monument State Park, and Fort Smallwood Park.  If they are on-site, ask one of the enumerators about what you’re seeing – they are very knowledgeable and always seem to have good tips on raptor ID. While Fall migration may have more traffic, don’t rule out finding some great birds coming up the coast in Spring.

While many of the hawks in Maryland are year-round residents, some migrate in spring and fall. Osprey arrives in March and is usually gone by October. Broad-winged Hawks migrate in fall in huge kettles, often with Vultures.

Rough-legged Hawks are winter visitors (look for them hovering over open fields).  Another, more rare winter visitor is the elusive Northern Goshawk.


To learn about hawks, raptors, and other birds in Maryland, as always, Audubon Mid-Atlantic (formerly Audubon Maryland-DC) has numerous chapters throughout the state The website has information on birding throughout the state.

Seeing a hawk in flight up close is a breathtaking sight, but you have to get out there in order to see them.

This was just a brief overview of the nine hawks found in Maryland. We hope you’ve enjoyed this article, and will check out some of our other pieces on birds in the 50 States.

All you need to start is a decent pair of binoculars and a good location. Get out there and see all the hawks and other amazing birds found throughout the state of Maryland.

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